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Colleague Assistance Programs For Psychologists

Culture, Communication & Therapeutic Boundaries

Dual Relationships

Health And Psychological Fitness For Psychologists

Impaired Psychologists

Preventing Burnout & Promoting Well-Being For Psychologists

Resolving Impasses & Issues In Therapeutic Relationships

Chemical Dependency & Substance Abuse

Professional Sexual Misconduct & Issues

More Related Articles


Epstein, R., Simon, R., & Kay, G.  (1992).  Assessing boundary violations in psychotherapy: Survey results with the Exploitation Index.

Frick, D.  (1994).  Nonsexual boundary violations in psychiatric treatment.  American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, 13, 415-432.

Gorkin, D.  (1987).  The uses of countertransference.  New Jersey, Jason Aronson, Inc.

Herman, J. L., Gartrell, N., Olarte, S., Feldstein, J., & Localio, J. B.  (1987).  Psychiatric-patient contact: Results of a national survey, II: Psychiatrists’ attitudes.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 164-169.

Heyward, C.  (1993).  When boundaries betray us.  San Francisco, CA: Harper.

Lazarus, A. A.  (1998).  How do you like these boundaries? The Clinical Psychologist, 51, 22-25.

Lyn, L.  (1991).  Lesbian, gay, and bisexual therapists’ social and sexual interactions with clients.  American Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Pope, K. S. & Vasquez, M. J.  (1991).  Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide for psychologists.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Menninger, W.  (1991).  Identifying, evaluation, and responding to boundary violations: A risk management program.  Psychiatric Annals, 21, (11).

Schoener, G. R.  (1995).  Assessment of professionals who have engaged in boundary violation.  Psychiatric Annals, 25(2), 95-99.

Schwebel, M., Schoener, G., & Skorina, J. K.  (1994).  Assisting impaired Psychologists.  (Rev. ed.).  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

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Bissel, L. C., & Haberman, P.  (1984).  Alcoholism in the professions.  New York, Oxford University Press.

Buxton M.  (1990).  Monitoring, re-entry and relapse prevention for chemically dependent health care professionals, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22, 447-450.

Friedenberger, H. J.  (1989).  Chemical abuse among psychologists: Symptoms, causes, and treatment issues.  In R. R. Kilbert, P.E. Nathan, & R. Thoreson, (Eds.), Professionals in Distress: Issues, Syndromes, and Solutions in Psychotherapy (pp. 135-152).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Good, G., Thoreson, P., & Shaughnessy, P.  (1995).  Substance usage, confrontation of impaired colleagues, and psychological functioning among counseling psychologists: A national survey.  Counseling Psychologist, 23 (4), 703-721.

Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C.  (1992).  In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors.  American Psychologist, 47, 11-2-1114.  

Thoreson, R. W., & Skorina, J. K.  (1989).  Alcohol abuse among psychologists.  In R. R. Kilburg, P. E. Nathan, & R. W. Thoreson (Eds.), Professionals in distress: Issues, syndromes, and solutions in psychology (13-26).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Abel, G. G., Osborn, C. A., & Worberg, B.  (1995).  Cognitive behavioral treatment for professional sexual misconduct.  Psychiatric Annals, 25(2), 106-112.

Averill, S. C., Beale, D., Benfer, B., Collins, D. T., Kennedy, L., Myers, J., Pope, D. Rosen, I., & Zoble, E.  (1989).  Preventing staff-patient sexual relationships.  Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 384-393.

Bartell, P. A., * Rubin, L. J.  (1990).  Dangerous liaisons: Sexual intimacies in supervision.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 442-450.

Bouhoutsos, J., Horoyd, J., Lerman, H., Forer, B. R., & Greenberg, M.  (1983).  Sexual intimacy between psychotherapists and patients.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14, 185-196.

Brodsky, A. M.  (1989).  Sex between patient and therapist Psychology’s data and response.  In G. O. Gabbard (Ed.), Sexual exploitation in professional relationships (pp. 15-25).  Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Brown, L. S.  (1988).  Harmful effects of post-termination sexual and romantic relationships between therapists and their former clients, Psychotherapy, 25, 249-255.

Eyman J., & Gabbard, G.  (1991).  Will therapist-patient sex prevent suicide?  Psychiatric Annals, 21, 11, 669-674.

Folman, R. Z.  (1991).  Therapist-patient sex: Attraction and boundary problems.  Psychotherapy, 28, 168-173.

Frick, D. E., McCartney, C. F., & Lazarus, J. A.  (1995).  Supervision of sexually exploitative psychiatrists: American Psychological Association District Branch Experience.  Psychiatric Annals 25(2), 113-117.

Gabbard, G.  (1991).  Psychodynamics of sexual boundary violations.  Psychiatric Annals, 21, 11, 651-655.

Gabbard, G. O.  (1995).  Transference and countertransference in the psychotherapy of therapists charged with sexual misconduct.  Psychiatric Annals 25(2), 100-105.

Gartrell, N., Herman, J., Olarte, S., Localio, J. B., & Feldstein, M.  (1988).  Psychiatric residents’ sexual contact with educators and patients: Results of a national survey.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 690-694.

Gartrell, N., Herman, J., Olarte, S., Feldstein, J., & Localio, J. B.  (1987).  Reporting practices of psychiatrists who knew of sexual misconduct by colleagues.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 287-295.

Glaser, R. D., & Thorpe, J. S.  (1986).  Unethical intimacy: A survey of sexual contact and advances between psychology educators and female graduate students.  American Psychologist, 41, 43-51.

Gabbard, G., & Menninger, W.  (1991).  An overview of sexual boundary violations in psychiatry.  Psychiatric Annals, 21, (11), 649-650.

Gutheil, T.  (1991).  An overview of sexual boundary violations in psychiatry.  Psychiatric Annals, 21, (11), 649-650.

Gutheil, T.  (1991).  Patients involved in sexual misconduct with therapists: Is a victim profile possible?  Psychiatric Annals, 21, (11), 661-667.

Holroyd, J. C., & Brodsky, A. M.  (1977).  Psychologists’ attitudes and practices regarding erotic and non-erotic physical contact with patients.  American Psychologist, 32, 843-849.

Holroyd, J. C., & Brodsky, Am. M.  (1980).  Does touching patients lead to sexual intercourse?~Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 11, 807-811.

Jorgenson, L. M.  (1995).  Rehabilitating sexually exploitative therapists: A risk management perspective.  Psychiatric Annals 25(2), 118-122.

Lamb, D., & Catanzaro, S.  (1998).  Sexual and nonsexual boundary violations involving psychologists, clients, supervisees, and students: Implications for professional practice.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(5), 498-503.

Layman, M. J., & McNamara, J. R.  (1997).  Remediation for ethics violations: Focus on psychotherapists’ sexual contact with clients.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 281-292.

Levine, S., Risen, C., & Althof, S.  (1994).  Professionals who sexually offend: Evaluation procedures and preliminary findings.  Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 20(4), 288-298.

Olarte, S.  (1991).  Characteristics of therapists who become involved in sexual boundary violations.  Psychiatric Annals, 21911), 657-660.

Pope, K. S.  (1990).  Therapist-patient sexual involvement: A review of the research.  Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 477-490.

Rodolfa, E., Hall, T., Holms, V., Davena, A., Komatz, D., Antunez, M., & Hall, A.  (1994).  The management of sexual feelings in therapy.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 168-172.

Schoener, G. R.   (1994).  Assessment and rehabilitation of professionals who engage in sexual misconduct.   Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in Los Angeles, CA.

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Advisory Committee on Colleague Assistance. (2006). Advancing colleague assistance in professional Psychology: ACCA monograph.  Retrieved March 8, 2006, from

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Akutsu, P. D. & Chu, J. P. (2006). Clinical problems that initiate professional help-seeking from Asian-Americans.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(4), 407-415.

Baker, E.K. (2003). Caring for ourselves: A therapist’s guide for personal and professional well-being. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bonanno, G.A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events. American Psychologist, 59, 20-28.

Chamberlin, J. (2004). No desire to fully retire. APA Monitor, 35(10), 82.

Cousineau, T. M. & Shedler, J.  (2006). Predicting physical health: Implicit mental health measures versus self-report scales.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(6), 427-432.

Deutsch, C. J. (1985). A survey of therapists’ personal problems and treatment. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 305-315.

Ditmann, M. (2004). A new face to retirement. APA Monitor, 35(10), 78.

Elliott, D. M. & Guy, J. D. (1993). Mental health professionals versus non-mental-health professionals: Childhood trauma and adult functioning. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 83-90.

Frewen, P., Dozois, D. J. A.  (2006).  Self-worth appraisal of life events and Beck’s congruency model of depression vulnerability.  Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(2), 231-240.

Guy, J.D. (2000). Holding the holding environment together: Self-psychology and psychotherapist care. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 351-352.

Gilroy, P.J., Carroll, L., & Murra, J. (2002). A preliminary survey of counseling psychologists’ personal experiences with depression and treatment. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 33, 402-407.

Guy, J. D., & Liaboe, G. (1985). Suicide among psychotherapists: Review and discussion. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 470-472.

Kelley, T.M. (2005). Natural resilience and innate mental health. American Psychologist, 60, 265.

Kersting, K. (2004). Elderbears: Out of the retirement cave. APA Monitor, 35(10), 86.

Kottler, J. A. (1999). The therapist’s workbook: self assessment, self-care, and self-improvement exercises for mental health professionals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kramen-Kahn, B. & Hansen, N. D. (1998). Rafting the rapids: Occupational hazards, rewards, and coping strategies of psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(2) 130-134.

Laliotis, D. A. & Grayson, J. H. (1985). Psychologist heal thyself: What is available for the impaired psychologist. American Psychologist, 40, 84-96.

Lopez, S.  J.  & Kerr,  B. A.  (2006).  An open source approach to creating positive psychological practice: A comment on Wong's Strengths-centered Therapy.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(2), 147-150.

Mahoney, M.J. (1997). Psychotherapists’ personal problems and self-care patterns.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 14-16.

Norcross, J.C. (2005). The psychotherapist’s own psychotherapy: Educating and developing psychologists. American Psychologist, 60(8), 840-850.

Norcross, J.C. (2000). Psychotherapists’ self-care: Practitioner-tested, research informed strategies. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 710-713.

Norcross, J. C., & Prochaska, J. O. (1986). Psychotherapist heal thyself-I: The psychological distress and self-change of psychologists, counselors, and laypersons. Psychotherapy, 23, 102-114.

O’Connor, M.F. (2001). On the etiology and effective management of professional distress and impairment among psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32, 345-350.

Oman D, Hedberg J, & Thoresen, C. E.  (2006). Passage meditation reduces perceived stress in health professionals: A randomized, controlled trial.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 714-719.

Orlinsky, D., Rønnestad, M. H., Ambühl, H., Willutzki, U., Botermans, J., Cierpka, M.,  Davis, J., & Davis, M. (1999). Psychotherapists' assessments of their development at different career levels. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36 (3), pp. 203-215.

Pingitore, D. & Scheffler, R. M. (2005). Practice patterns across the clinical life span: Results from the California survey of psychological Practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, (36).4, 434–440.

Pope, K. S. & Tabachnick, B. G. (1994). Therapists as patients: A national survey of psychologists’ experiences, problems and beliefs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 247-258.

Radeke, J. T. & Michael J. Mahoney, M. J. (2000).  Comparing the personal lives of psychotherapists and research psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1), 82-84.

Rosen, G. M. (1993). Self-help or hype? Comments on psychology's failure to advance self-care. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(3), 340-345.

Roberts, P. & Newton, P. M. (1987). Levinsonian studies of women's adult development. Psychology and Aging, 2, 154-163.

Suran, B. G. & Sheridan, E. P. (1985). Management of burnout: Training psychologists in professional life span perspectives. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 16, 741-752.

Thoreson, R. W., Miller, M. & Krauskopf, C. J. (1989). The distressed psychologist: Prevalence and treatment considerations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 153-158.

Turner, J. A., Edwards, L. M., Eicken, I. M., Yokoyama, K., Castro, J. R., Ngoc-Thuy Tran, A. & Haggins, K. L. (2005). Intern self-care: an exploratory study into strategy use and effectiveness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(6), 674–680.

Vogel, D. L., Wade, N. G., & Haake, S.  (2006).  Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 325-337.

Vogel, D. L., Wester, S. R., Larson, L. M., & Wade, N. G. (2006).  Information processing and the decision to seek professional help.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 398-406.

Weiss, L. (2004). Therapist’s guide to self-care. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

Wichman, A. L., Reich, D. A., & Weary, G.  (2006).  Perceived likelihood as a measure of optimism and pessimism:  Support for the future events scale.  Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 215-219.

Wong, Y. J. (2006). Strength-centered therapy:  A social constructionist, virtues-
based psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 43, 133-146.

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Barnett, J.E. & Hillard, D.  (2001).  Psychologist distress and impairment: Availability, nature, and use of colleague assistance programs for psychologists.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(2), 205-210.

Floyd, M. & Myszka, M.  (1998). Licensed psychologists’ knowledge and utilization of a state association colleague assistance committee.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, (), 594-598.

Schwelsel, M., Skorina, T. K., & Schoener, G.  (1994).  Assisting impaired psychologists: Program development for state psychological associations, (3rd ed.).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Draguns, J.G.  (1996).  Ethnocultural considerations in the treatment of PTSD: Therapy and service delivery.  In A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, E. T. Gerrity, and R. T. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications.  (xxii, pp, 576).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Neville, H., Heppner, M., Loule, C., Thompson, C., Brooks, L. & Baker, C.  (1996).  The impact of multicultural training on white racial identity attitudes and therapy competencies.  Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 27 (1), 83-89.

Okazaki, S. (1997).  Sources of ethnic differences between Asian American and White American college students on measures of depression and social anxiety.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 52-60.

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Sue, D.W. & Sue, D.  (1999).  Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice.  New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Sue, D.W., & Sue, D.  (1990).  Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice.  New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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Anderson, S.K., & Kitchener, K.S.  (1996).  Nonromantic, nonsexual post therapy relationships between psychologists and former clients: An exploratory study of critical incidents.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 59-66.

Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S.  (1989).  Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of attitudes and practices.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 293-293.

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Faulkner, K. K. & Faulkner, T. A.  (1997).  Managing multiple relationships in rural communities: Neutrality and boundary violations.  Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 225-234.

Menninger, W.  (1991).  Identifying evaluating and responding to boundary violations: A risk management program.  Psychiatric Annals, 21, 1-11.

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Diugos, R. F. & Friedlander, Ml L.  (2001).  Passionately committed psychotherapists: A qualitative study of their experiences.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(3), 298-304.

Johnson, B. J., & Campbell, C. D.  (2002).  Character and fitness requirements for professional psychologists: Are there any?  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(1), 46-53.

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Brodie, J., & Robinson, B.  (1991, July).  MPA distressed/impaired psychologists survey: Overview and results.  Minnesota Psychologist, pp. 7-12.

Jordon, D., & Quinn, W.  (1996).  Ethical concerns for supervising the impaired marriage and family therapist.  Family therapy, 23, (1), 51-57.

Morrow, D., Kobos, J., & Gaskill, S.  (1994.  The impaired health professional: The need for primary prevention programs for students in the health professions.  Texas Psychologist, 4-6.

O’Connor, M. F. (2001).  On the etiology and effective management of professional distress and impairment among psychologists, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(4), 345-350.

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Sherman, M.  (1996).  Distress and professional impairment due to mental health problems among psychotherapists.  Clinical Psychology Review, 16(4), 299-315.

Sherman, M., & Thelen, M.  (1998).  Distress and professional impairment among Psychologists in clinical practice.  Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 29(1), 79-85.

Skorupa, J., & Agreswti, A. A.  (1993).  Ethical beliefs about burnout and continued professional practice.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 281-285.

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Ackerly, G. D., Burnell, J., Holder, D. C., & Kurdek, L. A.  (1988).  Burnout among licensed psychologists.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 624-631.

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Coster, J., & Schwebel, M.  (1997).  Well-functioning in professional psychologists.  Professional Psychology Research & Practice, 28(1), 5-13.

Cushway, D., & Tyler, P.  (1996).  Stress in clinical psychologists.  International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 42(2), 141-149.

Cushway, D., Tyler, P., & Nolan, P.  (1996).  Development of a stress scale for mental health professionals.  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(2), 279-315.

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Guy, J., Norcross, J., & Brady, J.  (1994).  Psychotherapists, heal thyself—reflections on how psychologists deal with distress.  Paper presented at American Psychological Association Convention, Los Angeles, CA.

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Huebner, E., & Mills, L.  (1997).  Another look at occupational stressors among school psychologists.  School Psychology International, 18(4), 359-374.

Kilburg, R. R., Nathan, P. E., & Thoreson, L. W.  (1986).  Professionals in distress: Issues, syndromes, and solutions in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kramen-Kahn, B., & Hansen, N.  (1998.)  Rafting the rapids: Occupational hazards, rewards and coping strategies of psychotherapists.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29)3), 130-134.

Laliotis, D. A., & Grayson, J. H.  (1985).  Psychologist heal thyself: What is available for the impaired psychologist? American Psychologist, 40, 84-96.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S.  (1984).  Stress, appraisal, and coping.  New York: Springer.

Mahoney, M. J.  (1997).  Psychotherapists’ personal problems and self-care patterns.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 14-16.

Mills, L., & Huebner, E.  (1998).  A prospective study of personality characteristics, occupational stressors, and burnout among school psychology practitioners.  Journal of School Psychology, 36(10, 103-120.

Mutagh, M., & Wollersheim, J.  (1997).  Effects of clinical practice on psychologists: Treating depressed clients, perceived stress, and ways of coping.  Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 28(4), 361-3M.

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Norcross, J. C., Strausser-life span perspectives.  Professional Kirtland, D., & Missar, C. D.  (1988).  The processes and outcomes of psychotherapists’ personal treatment experiences.  Psychotherapy, 25, 36-43.

Remen, R.  (1996).  Kitchen table wisdom: Stones that heal.  New York: Riverhead Books.

Schwebel, M., & Coster, S.  (1998).  Well-functioning in professional psychologists: As program heads see it.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(3), 284-292.

Suran, B. G., & Sheridan, E. P. (1985).  Management of burnout: Training psychologists in life span development.  Psychology Research and Practice, 16, 741-752.

Uttaro, T., Vali, F., Horwitz, A., & Henri, W.  (1998).  Primary therapists’ views of managed care.  Psychological Reports, 82(2), 459-464.

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